(William Donovan, the man who headed the Office of Strategic Services during World War II)
At a time when people are concerned with government spying on its citizens, it is useful to examine how two world wars and the Cold War led to the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Douglas Waller, a former correspondent for Time and Newsweek, and the author of WILD BILL DONOVAN: THE SPYMASTER WHO CREATED THE OSS AND MODERN AMERICAN ESPIONAGE has revisited the origins of the CIA by examining the men that William Donovan trained as intelligence operatives who went on to head America’s foremost spy agency. In his new book, DISCIPLES: THE WORLD WAR II MISSIONS OF THE CIA DIRECTORS WHO FOUGHT FOR BILL DONOVAN, Waller follows the careers of Allen W. Dulles, William Casey, Richard Helms, and William Colby, and their interactions with Donovan as their careers culminated in Langley, Va. When I first picked up the book I was concerned that Waller would rehash a great deal of the same material he covered in his biography of Donovan. To my satisfaction this is not the case. There is some repetition, but the book can stand on its own merits as Waller has written a wonderful adventure story that weaves together the experiences of the “disciples.” Based on archival material, the most prominent secondary sources, and pertinent memoirs the book is an excellent read for spy buffs and the general public.
Waller begins the book with short biographical sketches of each individual and the similarities in their backgrounds. Waller points out that there was a common thread that ran through Dulles, Casey, Helms, and Colby. Each was smart, intellectual, and “voracious readers, thoughtful, and creatures of reason….these were strong, decisive, supremely confident men of action, doers who believed they could shape history rather than let it control them.” When one follows their careers Waller’s description appears extremely accurate. Though their personalities differed; Dulles comes across with a much larger ego who rubbed many in power the wrong way; Casey, more of an introvert who worked behind the scenes and new how to navigate the bureaucratic morass of government; Helms and Colby, more adventurous and hands on, the result of which was they all would ascend the intelligence ladder at different rates to finally emerge as leaders in their own right. All had important relationships with Donovan; some more testy, particularly Dulles who wanted Donovan’s job as head of the Organization of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II, but in the end they worked together and laid the foundation for America’s post war intelligence operations.
(Allen W. Dulles, headed American intelligence operations against Germany during WWII and as CIA Director under Eisenhower launched numerous covert operations)
Waller traces the career of each of the disciples and what stands out is their roles during World War II. Donovan was charged by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to create an espionage operation during the war by choosing him as the Coordinator of Information, a position that would morph into the head of the OSS. Waller examines the rise of Allen Dulles first, tracing his career from World War I, his experiences as a diplomat at Versailles, and his relationship with his brother, John Foster, and their law firm Sullivan and Cromwell. Dulles emerges as a self-confident individual who sought total control of all operations. Posted to Berne, Switzerland during the war, Dulles developed important sources though he was at times over the top with his predictions. On a number of occasions he resented Donovan, but in the end went along with his boss. William Casey’s education as a spy began as a lawyer in the 1930s where he became an expert on the tax code dealing with War Department contracts. This attracted Donovan interest and he would recruit Casey for the OSS in 1943. Casey, an organizational expert was sent to London where he worked under David Bruce, and implemented a management style that would lead him to oversee intelligence assets and commando operations in France and Germany. Richard Helms joined the navy after Pearl Harbor and worked on strategies to deal with German submarine warfare. By 1943 he was forced into OSS Psyops and by the end of the war he was sent to London to organize operations in Germany for the post war period. William Colby, the most liberal of the four and a supporter of FDR, studied in France in the late 1930s, witnessed the Spanish Civil War, and developed a hatred for communism. He would become a commando during the war and showed tremendous physical courage behind enemy lines in France and Norway.
(Richard Helms after a career in intelligence dating back to WWII became CIA Director in the 1960s and was eventually fired by President Nixon)
One of the most interesting aspects of the book is how Waller introduces individuals who interacted with the OSS, and in particular the “disciples” during the war. FBI Head, J. Edgar Hoover despised Donovan seeing him as a threat and unleashed his own agents to spy on the OSS. We meet Julia Child, later known as “the cooking guru” for woman in the 1950s. Along the way Arthur Goldberg emerges as a link to European labor movements, who would later serve on the Supreme Court. British spymasters come and go throughout the book, particularly William Stephenson who at one time had an office next to Dulles in Rockefeller Center. Fritz Kolbe, the OSS’ most important agent who allowed Dulles to penetrate the German Foreign Office in Berlin and whose work saved the lives of many allied soldiers takes a prominent role. These and many other individuals and their own stories lend a great deal to Waller’s narrative.
(William Colby was a trained commando during World War II and parachuted into France and Norway who later became CIA Director under Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford)
Waller does a nice job showing how the careers of the “disciples” intersected with Donovan during the war. For example, Donovan’s visitations to commando training, witnessing Colby’s preparation for parachuting into France. Dulles and Casey intersected as both were smuggling agents into France to link up with and supply the French resistance. Casey was in charge of monitoring commando drops like Colby’s into France. Casey also funneled Dulles’ intelligence reports to Washington, and in a number of cases felt that they were highly exaggerated. Helms finally left for London in early 1945 and was supposed to organize Dulles’ mission for Germany, but because of Hitler’s last ditch effort in France in the Ardennes, he never carried out the assignment and wound up with Casey overseeing agents in Germany. In fact Casey and Helms shared an apartment in London at the time! Colby and Casey would meet at General George S. Patton’s headquarters in September, 1944 as Casey became Donovan’s eyes in Europe and eventually would replace David Bruce as head of London operations, an appointment that Dulles greatly resented. Donovan felt that Dulles was a poor administrator and lacked the leadership skills that Casey possessed.
Waller spends a great deal of time on the actions of American commandos behind German lines. He describes Colby’s training in detail and takes the reader along with these men as they parachute into France and Germany, exhibiting courage and discipline as they try to reinforce the French resistance, and later gather intelligence in Germany to try and bring the conflict to a faster conclusion. Waller also spends a great deal of time discussing the infighting among the “disciples” and their private lives. By doing so the reader gains insights into each of these men and it helps explains how their post-World War II careers would evolve into directorships of the CIA.
The final section of Waller’s narrative focuses on American intelligence policies and actions during the Cold War as the OSS evolves into the CIA and focuses its attention on the communist threat. Once President Truman forces Donovan into retirement Dulles takes over the newly created CIA and his reputation for mismanagement will result in what Blanch Wiesen Cook, in her book DECCLASSIFIED EISENHOWER, refers to as the “coup presidency.” Dulles would launch covert operations in Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, and the disastrous U-2 Incident, all resulting in his eventual downfall. Dulles was succeeded by Helms, who unlike his predecessor believed in tight organizational control. His mantra was “that there should be no surprises on his watch” and he was very popular within the agency. Helms would be fired by Richard Nixon in part because he refused to cooperate with break-ins and cover ups associated with Watergate. Colby’s tenure as director is most remembered for his testimony before the Church Committee in 1974 as leaked CIA documents called for congressional action. Colby was the most politically liberal of all the “disciples” and this played a role in his cooperation with Congress which he was vilified for by Helms and Casey. But, as Waller correctly points out his testimony probably saved the CIA from a wholesale reorganization that would have ruined its effectiveness. The last of the “disciples,” William Casey took over the agency under Ronald Reagan and he tried to create the atmosphere that existed under his hero, William Donovan, who like his mentor “kept the door open to all ideas for operations, even the wacky ones.” Casey wanted to recreate the can do culture of the OSS from WWII for the 1980s, focusing on the communist menace instead of the Nazis. This would result in repeated machinations in dealing with Afghanistan, Central America, and the Iran-Contra scandal in particular.
(William Casey was a successful “spy master” during World War II who became CIA Director under Ronald Reagan)
Waller has written a fascinating account of the men who followed Donovan as leaders in American intelligence, and current implications for some of the policies they pursued. Today we are faced with the ramifications of Edward Snowden’s leaks and issues over NSA and other surveillance. It would be interesting to speculate how these gentlemen would respond to these issues.
(Major General William J. Donovan who led America’s intelligence operations during World War II)