HAMILTON: THE MUSICAL, HISTORICALLY ACCURATE OR NOT
Steven Z. Freiberger, Ph.D
603 580 5145
The course is designed to explore America’s early history through the eyes of Alexander Hamilton. The class will be provided a series of lectures/discussion geared toward; background to the American Revolution; Hamilton’s life story; a study of how the musical “Hamilton” was created: and a class analysis of whether the story and lyrics are historically accurate.
All students will be expected to purchase the “Hamilton: An American Musical” by Lin-Manuel Miranda that includes the 2 CDs and a pamphlet with lyrics. This is a necessity if students are to engage each other in discussion concerning the historical validity of the musical.
April 24, 2017 Life in Colonial America
May 1, 2017 Alexander Hamilton: A Life
May 8, 2017 Hamilton: An American Musical
May 15, 2017 Class discussion on the historical validity of the musical
Bibliography of some of the major players:
Appleby, Joyce THOMAS JEFFERSON
Beeman, Richard PLAIN, HONEST MEN: THE MAKING OF THE AMERICAN
Brookhiser, Richard ALEXANDER HAMILTON: AMERICAN
Burns, James MacGregor; Susan Dunn GEORGE WASHINGTON
Bustein, Andrew; Nancy Isenberg MADISON AND JEFERSON
Cheney, Lynne JAMES MADISON: A LIFE RECONSIDERED
Chernow, Ron ALEXANDER HAMILTON
Chernow, Ron GEORGE WASHINGTON: A LIFE
Diggins, John Patrick JOHN ADAMS
Ellis, Joseph FOUNDING BROTHERS
Ellis, Joseph THE QUARTET
Ellis, Joseph HIS EXCELLENCY: GEORGE WASHINGTON
Ellis, Joseph AMERICAN SPHINX: THE CHARACTER OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
Ferling, John JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON: THE RIVALRY THAT FORGED A NATION
Ferling, John JOHN ADAMS: A LIFE
Ferling, John ADAMS VERSUS JEFFERSON: THE TUMULTUOUS ELECTION OF
Ferling, John THE ASCENT OF GEORGE WASHINGTON
Flexner, James GEORGE WASHINGTON 4 VOLUMES
Hart, Gary JAMES MONROE
Hayes, Kevin THE ROAD TO MONTICELLO
Isenberg, Nancy FALLEN FOUNDER: THE LIFE OF AARON BURR
Ketchum, Ralph JAMES MADISON
Lomansk, Milton AARON BURR 2 VOLUMES
Maier, Pauline RATIFICATION: THE PEOPLE DEBATE THE CONSTITUTION 1787-
Malone, Dumas THOMAS JEFFERSON 4 VOLUMES
McDonald, Forrest ALEXANDER HAMILTON: A BIOGRAPHY
McCullough, David JOHN ADAMS
McCullough, David 1776
Meacham, Jon THOMAS JEFFERSON: THE ART OF POWER
Miller, John C. ALEXANDER HAMILTON
Miranda, Lin-Manuel; McCarter, Jeremy
Stewart, David O. JAMES MADISON
Stewart, David O. THE SUMMER OF 1787: THE MEN WHO INVENTED THE
Wills, Gary JAMES MADISON
Unger, Harlow Giles THE LAST FOUNDING FATHER
Vidal, Gore BURR
(Paris’s Pere Lachaise Cemetery)
Paris, a late summer evening when two unsuspecting tourists in search of Jim Morrison’s grave site in the Pere Lachaise cemetery are murdered. So begins Mark Pryor’s second installment of his Hugo Marston series, THE CRYPT THIEF. Marston, a former FBI profiler and chief of security at the American embassy in Paris is called into the ambassador’s office and told that one of the murder victims is Maxwell Holmes, the son of a US senator who was about to begin an internship at the embassy; the other is an Egyptian woman named Hanna Elserdi. Later the action shifts to another cemetery, nine hours from Paris in the small town of Castet where the night watchman, named Duguay is murdered. It seems that all three murders were committed by the same man.
It turns out that the Egyptian girl is Pakistani, from Karachi and her real name is Abida Kiam. She had traveled to Paris with Mohammad Al-Zakiri, the son of a prominent mullah in Pakistan whose views were pro-al-Qaeda and Taliban. His alias was Pierre Labor, an Egyptian-Frenchman. Marston argues that the murders might all be a coincidence and not acts of terrorism, something that Senator Norris Holmes cannot accept.
The author does a nice job reintegrating characters from his first novel, THE BOOKSELLER. We become reacquainted with Tom Green, Marston’ wisecracking and unpredictable former CIA operative who still consults for the American intelligence agency. Capitale Raul Garcia of the Paris Police Department returns to renew his relationship with Marston when they worked on solving the murder of Max, a poor bookseller who sold books from his kiosk along the Siene River. Marston’s former lover/girlfriend, Claudia, a newspaper reporter reenters his life as she covers the cemetery murders. Soon, Marston will learn that in addition to the murders, a crypt has been robbed of the skeletal remains of the famous dancer, Jane Avril who had been buried over seventy years ago.
Early in the novel a number of questions confront Marston. First, what is the relationship between the murdered American and the woman who accompanied him and the crypt robber? Second, what role does international terrorism play in his investigation, if any. Further, when a number of crypts are broken into to steal the bones of dead can-can girls, is it related to the overall investigation or is it something even more bizarre occurring, particularly when the killer is leaving an Egyptian scarab beetle at each murder scene. It becomes a race to the next cemetery to prevent what seems to be a serial killer from taking more lives, and “bones.”
As one reads on one gets the sense of Pryor’s views of terrorist threats and how they germinate. The treatment of Al-Zakiri by CIA operatives, who act first, then investigate thoroughly is important as it provides evidence as to why the United States is seen so negatively in the Islamic world. Marston’s measured approach is one that the author believes the US should take when dealing with a possible terrorist threat. Pryor also raises the issue of a free press during an investigation that could lead to a terrorist attack. What role should journalists play, particularly when their actions could endanger people? It is a tough call, but common sense should prevail, but at times that is not the case.
Pryor provides a well-crafted story, though his character development is weaker than his first Marston novel. But the intrigue created by the grave robber/murderer will keep the reader’s attention. The story is complex and eerie at times and should not be read right before you go to sleep, however despite what seems to be a predictable ending, the book is worth the read.
(Paris’ Pere Lachaise Cemetery)
This morning when I checked the weather forecast it called for another 18-24 inches on top of the 12 plus we got on Friday. For me it calls for snuggling up with the New York Times and New York Post (let no one think I am one of those liberals) and reading the book review and sports sections. In the NYT BOOK REVIEW I came across a wonderful article by James Atlas entitled, “Headed for the Graveyard of Books.” In it I found one of the best answers to a question I have thought about for decades. Three years ago my wife Ronni and I moved from the Hanover, NH area down to the seacoast. I faced a major crisis, how do I move a personal library of over 8000 books. After careful consideration and much prodding by the love of my life I gave 2000 away. Today I am left with the remaining items, a blend of historical monographs, historical fiction, biography, literature, mysteries, and sports. When people visit or hear about my collection the question always comes up, “have you read them all?” Of course the answer is no, as there are only 24 hours in a day, and you must sleep for a significant block of that time. The next question that arises is “why not go the library and/or why do you have so many?”
In Atlas’ article he quotes Anatole France, who is “asked if he has read all of the books in his library, [he] is said to have replied: “not one-tenth of them. I don’t suppose you use your Sevres china every day?”* This is the answer I have been searching for. Friends will show off their Kindles or Nooks and say why not them? Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately I cannot adjust to the backlighting on these consumer items, and as a wanna be Luddite I will not use them. I realize that my addiction to books whether it is their texture, the snap of their spines, or the type of print presented it is something I cannot or will not try and cure myself of. I realize that when I travel or go to a doctor’s office or any number of places I carry extra pounds, but I do not question the wisdom of carrying a laptop, I pad, smart phone, large purses, attaché cases, and backpacks, so why should people question me? Choosing a book from your own “stacks” or sharing them with friends, neighbors, and students is a behavior that never gets old. So the next time someone asks the question, “have you read them all?” I will smile inwardly and contemplate my next journey that presents itself on the written page, because people continue to write wonderful books!
Last night I had the pleasure of going to the Music Hall in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and being entertained by the “Capitol Steps,” a satirical group of entertainers and political commentators. They were funny, talented and iconoclastic. I went with friends who do not always agree politically, but it was an enjoyable evening. All spectrums of of the political world were lampooned, left, right, and middle. Imitations of Hillary, Bernie, Obama, Schumer, McConnell, “W,” and the Donald were all presented. After almost two hours of laughing, it dawned on me that this is not just comedy, but serious, especially when they did their skit on “The Supremes,” reflecting the upcoming debate in the Senate. What is scary is that this is where we are as a nation, where the “truth does not set us free.” We need to grow up as a people, especially those who supposedly represent us in government. If all we want is to pass our agendas and make points against our opposition then we are in trouble. Damn it America, grow up, from the President, Congress, down to the general public. Because unless we do we will become the laughing stock of the world, if we haven’t done so already. If we continue on our path the “art of the deal” will become “the art of the steal” as America’s reputation is demeaned and stolen, and rides off into insignificance, with everything that possible contemplation will bring.
“In the art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and in tact; to shatter and destroy is not good.” Sun Tzu, THE ART OF WAR
I guess Donald Rumsfeld and the rest of the neo-conservatives didn’t read much during their corporate careers. Therefore it is not surprising that Iraq remains a quagmire. Even Robert McNamara apologized for his mistakes in Vietnam. Rumsfeld and former Vice President Cheney continue to maintain they were correct….UGH!
In this political season when a candidate praises Vladimir Putin, a man who probably is well aware of Sun Tzu’s teaching, it might be important for certain people to become a bit more educated when it comes to our national security.
P.S. “When one receives a confidential national security briefing, the operative word is confidential.” Could be attributed to Thomas Paine, COMMON SENSE!!!!!
I have been trying to hold my tongue when thinking about the coming election. However, last night the egoist from Manhattan just went too far. Having studied the Middle East for over 40 years I am fully aware of the errors that President Obama has made in dealing with Iraq and Syria, but too blame him for being the “founder” of ISIS reflects the total lack of historical knowledge that the egoist is guilty of. Perhaps the narcissist should read a book or consult documents dealing with the Middle East. Perhaps he might learn that ISIS morphed from al-Qaeda in Iraq. Perhaps he would learn that Abu Musa al-Zarqawi began the process as early as 2005. Perhaps he would learn that the Bush administration destabilized Iraq to the point of creating the vacuum that Iran and ISIS have filled. Perhaps he would learn that Paul Bremer was incompetent. Perhaps he would learn that “Debathization” was one of the worst decisions the Bush administration ever made. Perhaps he would learn that many of ISIS’ officer corps and leaders rose from the Iraqi Sunni military population. I could go on, but I know “perhaps” doesn’t apply to Mr. Trump, as well as historical fact. I apologize in advance if this rant bothers some, but I do not “tweet” so this is my vehicle for political therapy.
(Robert Francis Kennedy)
Early in the morning on June 6, 1968 I got out of bed and turned on the news and learned that Robert F. Kennedy had been assassinated. Kennedy had just won the California primary and as a college freshman I was convinced that had he lived he would have been elected president. For me, the “what ifs” of American history applied, particularly because of the path taken by the Nixon administration. I often wonder what would have been the course of American history had Bobby Kennedy lived – Civil rights? Vietnam? Income equality? But counterfactuals are an intellectual exercise, not reality. There have been numerous books written about Robert Kennedy and one must be careful to look at the entire picture, not just the last few years of his life when he evolved into a liberal icon. A new biography by Larry Tye entitled, BOBBY KENNEDY: THE MAKING OF A LIBERAL ICON is a major contribution to the RFK literature as it is a very nuanced analysis of the former Attorney General and relies on a vast array of materials, interviews, and newly released documents from the Kennedy Library that results in a fresh approach to examining the life of the third Kennedy brother.
The key to Tye’s narrative is that he is able to effectively chart Robert Kennedy’s transformation from a rabid cold warrior who had been counsel to Senator Joseph McCarthy, plotted the elimination of Fidel Castro, wiretapped Martin Luther King, supported the war in Vietnam to the liberal hero who was on the precipice of the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1968 when he was struck down by Sirhan Sirhan in Los Angeles. The question that emerges is could he “have stitched back together a divided land whose vision seems at best as resonant in today’s polarized America?” It is hard to forget the violence and hatreds that the upheavals of the 1960s wrought with Robert Kennedy at its center; as Attorney General and his brother’s main advisor on domestic and foreign policy, and as a senator from New York. Many argue had he lived the latter part of the 20th century would have been quite different, but it was not to be. Tye’s work is impactful because of the attention he devotes to the earliest, hardest-edge part of Kennedy’s career and how his conservative roots fostered his later transformation. In addition, the author has the ability to unearth, then describe the senator’s unabashed humanity and empathy for others no matter the color of their skin or their religious beliefs.
Of all the Kennedy children, Bobby was most like his father, Joseph P. Kennedy. He took to heart his father’s adage that family came first, and in a crunch, it was only your parents and siblings that you could count on. Like his father he would see life in terms of “black and white,” and eventually he was able to prove to his father that he had another able son who could carry on the work of his brothers. Tye’s organizes his book into a series of chapters highlighting the most important aspects of Bobby’s career. Beginning with his service on McCarthy’s Permanent Sub-Committee on Investigations we see evidence of how his reputation as a ruthless and vindictive operative developed, a reputation that would stay with him for most of his life. Tye describes the relationship with the Wisconsin senator in detail and we see how the concept of loyalty developed in Kennedy’s mind. Tye provides incisive analysis of their relationship and why they remained friends until the senator’s death in 1957.
(Jimmy Hoffa flips off Robert Kennedy during hearings into Teamsters and organized crime)
Tye examines the often told story of the Kennedy-Jimmy Hoffa feud. He relies on the usual documentation as well as a new book by James Neff, VENDETTA that explores the war between the two men in detail. What is interesting is that Tye argues that part of the reason the war between the two men intensified over the years was their similar personalities, i.e., tenaciousness, competitiveness, and the refusal to lose. What is also interesting is that over the three years of hearings Robert Kennedy received more press that his brother Jack, and more importantly it allowed him to emerge from behind his father’s shadow as well as his brother. Employing many of the tactics he used working with McCarthy, the Hoffa hearings were extremely beneficial to Bobby’s career. The feud will remerge once Bobby becomes Attorney General and Tye provides numerous anecdotes based on his research of conversations between the two men, as well as legal transcripts. The Hoffa war was integral to Bobby’s expansion of the Justice Departments war on organized crime. This expansion also carried over into the Civil Rights division, adding lawyers and federal marshalls which became the basis of the Kennedy administration’s attempt to harness the civil and voter rights issues that exploded in the early 1960s. Tye covers the standard material dealing with events in Mississippi and Alabama, but what makes his approach unique is that we see events through the prism of the President’s brother and the strategy they pursued. In the end the events in the south would be so impactful that it helped Kennedy further understand the poverty and lack of rights that black American citizens suffered.
Robert Kennedy’s evolution in foreign policy is on full display as he was his brother’s most trusted advisor. This is abundantly clear during the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the Cuban Missile Crisis as Bobby becomes obsessed with getting even with Fidel Castro, a major error that he would come to realize later as he let his vendetta against the Cuban dictator get in the way of broader goals and values, just as he had done with his Hoffa campaign. Further, Tye is correct to point out that the book THIRTEEN DAYS, an account by Robert Kennedy of the missile crisis is not an honest appraisal of Bobby’s role, but what is really important is that Kennedy gained a new perspective on the nuclear world he lived in, and how accommodation was just as important as sabre rattling to achieve the nation’s national security goals.
For Tye, Robert Kennedy does not emerge as a complete person until the assassination of his brother. Having earned the respect of his father during the 1960 presidential campaign, he would begin to evolve into being his own man during the Cuban crisis, but it took the death of John F. Kennedy for him to complete the process. He would assume greater family responsibilities for his own children and those of his brother. He became the person the family could lean on, but he himself grew depressed and lost his focus concerning his future. He was able to recover in part by jumping into the New York senatorial race in 1964 and his burgeoning political and personal war with Lyndon Johnson. Bobby viewed the president as the usurper of the Kennedy throne, and Johnson who suffered from an Adlerian inferiority complex when it came to the Kennedys, despised the man he referred to as that “grandstanding little runt.” The relationship would only spiral downward as past slights and two extremely divergent personalities dominated the relationship as is described in greater detail in Jeff Shesol’s book MUTUAL CONTEMPT: LYNDON JOHNSON, ROBERT KENNEDY AND THE FEUD THAT DEFINED A DECADE.
(Freedom Rider bus attacked in Mississippi in 1961)
Robert Kennedy’s reputation was enhanced during the 1963 Freedom Rides summer and his election to the Senate, a move that would provide the therapy to deal with the loss of his brother. Once ensconced on Capitol Hill he threw himself into his work as he traveled to the Mississippi Delta and experienced the ills of poverty first hand. Further he took a major interest in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, NY where he witnessed the effects of white flight from urban areas and the resulting racial tension and poverty. Though he was a senator, it was the Kennedy name that allowed him to confront the federal bureaucracy to try to mitigate social, economic, and racial problems that he confronted. The key to burnishing his new found liberal reputation was his changing opinion on Viet Nam. Tye examines the evolution of Kennedy’s cold warrior view of the war in Southeast Asia, beginning in 1951 and sees the change in his perception coinciding with Johnson’s expansion of the war in 1965. At the outset Bobby was careful not to alienate the President, because so many Kennedy appointees were part of the Johnson administration. However, after witnessing the corruption of the South Vietnamese regime by February, 1967 he called for a middle way when he was informed by a French diplomat that Hanoi was open to negotiation in return for an unconditional bombing halt. Tye includes a number of LBJ-RFK conversations in his narrative and it is clear that their relationship had hit rock bottom, particularly when Bobby went public with his views. From this point on Tye takes the reader inside Kennedy’s thought process as he enters the 1968 presidential race. Kennedy’s motivations become clear as the campaign unfolds and the reader will begin to feel that they are a part of a new crusade to alleviate poverty in America and end the war in Vietnam.
(Robert Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson campaigning together in New York in 1964 despite their extreme distaste for each other)
Tye confronts all the major myths and rumors associated with the Kennedys and Bobby in particular in a reasoned and thoughtful manner. Be it their proclivity toward affairs, getting even with people who opposed them, or just plain everyday matters, he breaks each controversy down into what is real and what is imagined and comes to acceptable conclusions or argues what could be possible, and what never happened. However, Tye’s evolutionary theme as to how Robert Kennedy grew as a person is clear and accurately portrayed. For Tye, the “good Bobby,” outweighs the “bad Bobby,” in this important new biography of a man, who had he lived might have greatly altered the world in which we live today.
(Robert Francis Kennedy)